Design Principles for a Failure Guidance Scaffolding Tool: ‘Reflection Why’ in an e-PBL Environment
Abstract: Online problem-based learning (e-PBL) environments have great potential to facilitate learning. It is not, however, an easy work for learners in e-PBL environments to reflect on their own learning without guidance. They even could not get an opportunity to reflect and revise the problem solutions they made. If students fail in their PBL process, most of them cannot get an appropriate feedback and chance to reflect and revise their solution, but receive a poor grade. An e-PBL environment has to provide a tool for guiding the students who fail and allow them to achieve a success experience. To this end, the design of a reflective tool for an e-PBL environment is proposed and discussed in this article. Three design principles and seven design strategies are focused on to enable collaborative reflection of learners in a failed group e-PBL process.