Efficacy of a Direct Learning Tool for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
We propose a direct learning tutoring approach called C2Learn that reduces the learning gap between deaf and hearing students in highly abstract courses such as introduction to programming. Deaf students face major problems while participating in mediated learning in the classroom through a sign language interpreter, as opposed to students who directly learn from the instructor. One major problem is that many deaf students struggle to understand abstract concepts as they learn American Sign Language as a first language and English as a Second Language (ESL). We show that C2Learn improves learning outcomes for deaf students in an introduction to programming course. This approach can be easily adapted to develop tutoring tools for hearing ESL students, for example international students or recent immigrants, to improve their learning outcome in introductory programming classes.