Using SEM to Move from Theory to Practice with the TPACK Framework
Abstract: This paper presents the findings from a non-experimental Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis of the raw data used to measure (n = 596) educators at virtual schools in the United States TPACK levels using SPSS and Amos Graphics statistical software. A measurement model (MM) where PCK and TPACK were latent constructs was compared to a MM with seven TPACK constructs correlated as latent constructs. Findings suggest that seven constructs were not measured. The preferred alternative model considered only two latent constructs and used the sub-scale items to be causal indicators measuring the latent constructs PCK and TPACK’s effect on educators.